From a Depth Psychological perspective, there is also much to be said about the role of the archetype of Evil or the "whisperers of evil" as they are described in the Holy Qur'an. There is also the notion that the wider society has the responsibility as a collective, through its forms and symbols, such as the Shari'a to promote Jihad as a process of self-refinement or self-cultivation as well as economic and social justice as a result of an enlightened ethos, and to vigorously discourage the Jihad of violence and aggression as a result of oppression and repression of the feminine.
Be that as it may, here are some excerpts of what the author surmises in her chapter on the "Evolution of Evil:"
"In my research and professional practice, I have time and again come across two fundamental positions - partly philosophical, partly empirical - regarding the nature and evolution of violence and personal evil. The first view holds that certain individuals are predisposed toward becoming evil as a result of early childhood experiences of violence that made them suffer shame and humiliation, leaving them with unresolved anger. According to this view, the dynamics of evil that evolve from childhood psychological history often explain the roots of revenge, where anger and hatred resulting from the trauma suffered in the past are carried inside until the feelings of aggression can be enacted toward another in what becomes the individual's moment to reclaim the "honor" lost during the shaming experience. "(2003, p. 55)
"The second view on the issue maintains that evildoing is not the result of a predisposition, since most who have suffered unspeakable trauma do not turn out to be monsters. On this again partly philosophical, partly empirical view, people have free choice. The sovereignty of the heart is essentially inviolable. And though the decision to pursue what is right may on occasion be horrendously difficult, not only can people choose not to commit evil, but also they can make the kinds of choices that later on make it easier to avoid committing evil.
My own position is that the issue is more complex than either of these two stances suggests. Those who have been traumatized are vulnerable to falling into a mode of psychological repetition of the aggression they suffered. Whether individuals turn out this way or that depends on a complicated set of factors, one being whether they are "violently coached," another whether they are exposed to positive experiences that can help mend the humiliation they suffered and restore their sense of identity. Those who turn out to be violent are more likely to have had direct or indirect encouragement to be violent." (2003, pp. 56-57).
~Excerpted from "A Human Being Died That Night - A South African Woman Confronts The Legacy of Apartheid" by Dr. Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela who received her doctoral degree from Harvard University.